References and Readings

  • ILO: Achieving equal employment opportunities for people with disabilities through legislation. Guidelines (2007) Geneva.

    These guidelines reflect the reappraisal of disability as a human rights issue. Intended for policy-makers and drafters of legislation, they have been developed with a view to assisting in improving the effectiveness of national laws concerning training and employment of disabled persons, as part of an ILO Project 'The Employment of People with Disabilities: The impact of Legislation'. This project aims to enhance the capacity of governments of selected countries to implement effective legislation on the employment of people with disabilities - either in the form of laws, or revisions to existing laws, or through the development of regulations or policies to implement laws. The project also provides technical assistance to selected national governments in implementing necessary improvements to their laws. These drafting guidelines are a valuable tool to support this technical advisory role.

    Available online:

  • Gubbels, A.; Kemppainen, E. (2002). A review of legislation relevant to accessibility in Europe. Europe Accessibility Group.

    The report includes a discussion concerning European and national legislation in some European countries with respect to e-accessibility.

    Available Online:

  • Herr, Stanley, S.; Gostin, Lawrence, O.; Koh, Harold, Hongju, (eds); The Human Rights of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities; Oxford University Press; New York and Oxford.

    The issue of the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities has long been neglected in the field of human rights. This collection of contributions on the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities is dedicated to the memory of Stanley S. Herr, a noted advocate in this field. The book is based on the principles of the "Yale Declaration", which was drafted and signed at an international symposium on the Rights of People with Mental Retardation held at Yale Law School in March, 1995. This is a very large volume that provides a concrete basis for work in furthering a rights-based approach for people with intellectual disabilities.

  • Lunt, N.; Thornton, P. (1994). Disability and employment: Towards an understanding of discourse and policy. Disability & Society, 9(2), 223-238.

    This article explores the nature of disability employment policy, drawing on evidence from fifteen countries. In line with earlier sociological approaches to disability, it describes two ways of framing policy in the subject area. These two paradigms are developed and used to critically evaluate employment policy under the headings: legislative measures open employment-financial employment support services and sheltered/supported provision. The dilemmas that may arise during implementation of policy are discussed and the consequences for the construction of an emancipatory employment policy. Finally, the article suggests some themes or dimensions that a coherent disability policy should have.

    Available Online:

  • Mabbett, Deborah. (2005) "The Development of Rights-based Social Policy in the European Union: The Example of Disability Rights". JCMS
    Vol. 43 No. 1. 97-120.

    This publication examines the development of non-discrimination rights in the EU, with particular reference to disability. It outlines the origins of Article 13 TEC, which extended the competence of the Community institutions to combat discrimination, and traces the history of other initiatives in the disability policy area.

  • O'Reilly, Arthur (First published as working paper 2003 – Revised edition 2007). The Right to Decent Work of Persons with Disabilities. International Labour Organization, Geneva.

    The ILO commissioned this paper to contribute to the deliberations that were taking place in preparation for the development of a United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Specifically, the paper was meant to help the drafters of the provisions concerning employment and work in the Convention. It examined the development over time of the "right to work" of disabled persons and the way in which this issue has been dealt with in international instruments and national legislation up to that point. This paper is the revised edition 2007.

    Available Online:

  • Parker, Sarah. (2006). International justice: The United Nations, Human Rights and Disability. Journal of Comparative Social Welfare, 22(1), 63-78.

    This publication explores the United Nations (UN) human rights system through the lens of disability. An analysis of two human rights instruments, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with a Disability, is undertaken with reference to three key areas that influence the participation of persons with a disability: non-discrimination, social security, and employment.

    Available Online:

  • Quinn, G; Degener, Theresia; Bruce, Anna; Human Rights and Disability: The current use and future potential of United Nations human rights instruments in the context of disability; Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights; United Nations; New York; 2002.