References and Readings

  • Barnes, C. (1992). Disability and employment. Department of Sociology & Social Policy, the University of Leeds, 1-28.

    This paper focuses on institutional discrimination in employment and explains why anti-discrimination legislation is the most likely solution. The report is divided into four sections. The first defines institutional discrimination against disabled people. The second provides substantive quantitative evidence of institutional discrimination in employment. The third examines the main factors that cause that discrimination, and the fourth evaluates Government policies relating to disabled people's employment.

  • McDonnell, R., & Weale, A. (1984). Regulating for equal employment opportunities: The case of the disabled quota. Journal of Law and Society, 11(1), 105-114.

    This article touches upon the history of, as well as recent trends in the usage of disability quotas. The effectiveness of quotas and administrative changes are also discussed.

    Available Online (subscription needed):

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); (2004) Transforming Disability into Ability: Polices to promote work and income security for disabled workers; Paris.

    This publication was produced by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and is a comparison of the efficacy of the social policies of 20 countries with respect to how well they encourage or discourage work by people with disabilities. Among the many policies that this study examines is how effective quota systems are in the OECD countries that use them.

  • Thornton, P. (1998) Employment Quotas, Levies and National Rehabilitation Funds for Persons with Disabilities: Pointers for policy and practice'

    This report discusses the history, advantages and disadvantages of quota-levy systems, levy redistribution policies and national rehabilitation funds. It draws on responses to survey of countries which have established quota-levy systems and have had experience with rehabilitation funds. It also summary reports of Austria, China and Hungary. Finally, it reports on the management of national funds and the establishment of policy.

    Available Online: